This article is part of a multi-post series about shells in Emacs:

Emacs as a terminal emulator

Emacs can act as a powerful terminal emulator.

It can spawning interactive shells (with shell-mode and term-mode) and execute single shell commands.

This post will focus on single shell commands.

For interactive shells, see next post.

In this article, there are two meanings for the word “command”:

  • shell commands, we will refer to them with shell commands
  • interactive Emacs functions, we will refer to them with commands

Emacs Single Shell Command API

The main commands are:

functionexecutionreturn valuespawned buffers
shell-command-to-string (command)synchronousstdout 
shell-command (command & output-buffer error-buffer)synchronousreturn codestdout and stderr
async-shell-command (command & output-buffer error-buffer)synchronouswindow containing output-bufferstdout and stderr

As you can see, the three of those only accept a limited number of arguments.

But more are supported implicitly via various variables.

Here is a list of the most relevant ones:

default-directorylocation from which to launch shell
explicit-shell-file-name / shell-file-nameshell interpreter exec (e.g. bash …)
shell-command-switchswitch argument to use for running a command

So, by redefining the value of those vars we can change the behavior of the functions.


To prevent having to redefine those values, We can let-bind those vars for the duration of the execution (dynamic binding).

(defun my/uname-local ()
  (let ((default-directory "~")
        (explicit-shell-file-name "fish"))
    (message "Launching \"uname -a\" locally")
    (message (shell-command-to-string "uname -a"))))

(defun my/uname-on-raspi ()
  (let ((default-directory "/ssh:pi@raspi:/~")
        (explicit-shell-file-name "bash"))
    (message "Launching \"uname -a\" on Raspberry Pi")
    (message (shell-command-to-string "uname -a"))))

That’s pretty cool, but I’m not too fond of this hidden part of API.

Making the Implicit Explicit

Thankfully, it’s pretty straightforward to map implicit parameters to explicit ones and define a helper function.

As we want those params to be optional, it’s more convenient define them as keywords.

Click to toggle
;; ------------------------------------------------------------------------

(defvar prf-default-remote-shell-interpreter "/bin/bash")
(defvar prf-default-remote-shell-interpreter-args '("-c" "export EMACS=; export TERM=dumb; stty echo; bash"))
(defvar prf-default-remote-shell-interpreter-command-swith "-c")

;; ------------------------------------------------------------------------

(defun with-shell-interpreter--normalize-path (path)
  "Normalize path, converting \\ into /."
  (subst-char-in-string ?\\ ?/ path))

(defun with-shell-interpreter--get-interpreter-name (interpreter)
  (file-name-nondirectory interpreter))

;; ------------------------------------------------------------------------

(cl-defun eval-with-shell-interpreter (&key form path
                                            interpreter interpreter-args command-switch)
  (unless path
    (setq path default-directory))
  (unless (file-exists-p path)
    (error "Path %s doesn't seem to exist" path))

  (let* ((func
          (if (functionp form) form
            ;; Try to use the "current" lexical/dynamic mode for `form'.
            (eval `(lambda () ,form) lexical-binding)))
         (is-remote (file-remote-p path))
         (interpreter (or interpreter
                          (if is-remote
         (interpreter (with-shell-interpreter--normalize-path interpreter))
         (interpreter-name (with-shell-interpreter--get-interpreter-name interpreter))
         (explicit-interpreter-args-var (intern (concat "explicit-" interpreter-name "-args")))
         (interpreter-args (or interpreter-args (when is-remote prf-default-remote-shell-interpreter-args)))
         (command-switch (or command-switch
                             (if is-remote
         (default-directory path)
         (shell-file-name interpreter)
         (explicit-shell-file-name interpreter)
         (shell-command-switch command-switch))
        (list explicit-interpreter-args-var)
        (list (or interpreter-args
                  (when (boundp explicit-interpreter-args-var)
                    (symbol-value explicit-interpreter-args-var))))
      (funcall func))))

Note that we are defining prf-default-remote-shell-interpreter to have a default interpreter different from local shell-file-name1.

This allows rewriting the my/uname-local example with:

(defun my/uname-local ()
   :path "~"
   :interpreter "fish"
      (message "Launching \"uname -a\" locally")
      (message (shell-command-to-string "uname -a")))))

That’s pretty cool, but having to quote :form and wrap it in a progn is kinda cumbersome.

A macro wrapper to the rescue:

(defmacro with-shell-interpreter (&rest args)
  (declare (indent 1) (debug t))
    :form (lambda () ,(cons 'progn (with-shell-interpreter--plist-get args :form)))
    :path ,(plist-get args :path)
    :interpreter ,(plist-get args :interpreter)
    :interpreter-args ,(plist-get args :interpreter-args)
    :command-switch ,(plist-get args :command-switch)))

(defun with-shell-interpreter--plist-get (plist prop)
  "Like `plist-get' except allows value to be multiple elements."
  (unless (null plist)
    (cl-loop with passed = nil
             for e in plist
             until (and passed
                        (keywordp e)
                        (not (eq e prop)))
             if (and passed
                     (not (keywordp e)))
             collect e
             else if (not passed)
             do (setq passed 't))))

Which allows us to rewrite it like so:

(defun my/uname-local ()
   :path "~"
   :interpreter "fish"
   (message "Launching \"uname -a\" locally")
   (message (shell-command-to-string "uname -a"))))

The code for with-shell-interpreter can be found in package with-shell-interpreter.

Even better

Let’s just spin off our own version of shell-command-to-string.

(cl-defun prf-shell-command-to-string (command &key path interpreter command-switch)
  "Call CMD w/ `shell-command-to-string' on host and location described by PATH"
      :form (shell-command-to-string command)
      :path path
      :interpreter interpreter
      :command-switch command-switch))

Our example command becomes:

(defun my/uname-local ()
  (message "Launching \"uname -a\" locally")
  (prf/shell-command-to-string "uname -a"
                               :path "~"
                               :interpreter "fish"))

The code for prf-shell-command-to-string can be found in package prf-shell-command.


  1. Indeed, we might want an exotic one locally (e.g. zsh) but would want a safer option for remote servers. Also, under Microsoft Windows, shell-file-name defaults to cmdproxy.exe which is OK for local shells but sucks for remote ones… 

Tagged #emacs.